Abstract: Because of practically running short of major sources of domestic raw materials (cotton and wood) to produce high-quality cellulose and its nitrates, the problems associated with maintaining the national defense capability and with developing the industrial base have gotten worse. In this regard, the world is actively searching for alternative biomass sources. The present paper reports inbrief the findings that validate the possibility of obtaining cellulose nitrates from among the entire diversity of plant raw materials, with a nitrogen content between 10,00 and 13,40 % and with a high solubility in an alcohol-ester mixture. One of the most promising pathways is to utilize national non-conventional cellulosic feedstocks distinguished by a high cellulose content and broad habitats: linen flax, hemp, and intermediate flax. Another route is to introduce new species of high-energy plants into agriculture, which give high yields of biomass and require no special care in breeding: for example, Miscanthus var. Soranovskii. The third way is to use abandoned raw materials and grain processing residues of cereal crops having nearly zero prime cost, such as oat hulls. Besides, here we demonstrate a conceptual possibility of using the following industrial wood residues as biomass sources to synthesize cellulose nitrates: sawdust, wood pulp, industrial household waste, particularly medical gauze, as well as lignocellulosic material. This review provides brief information on the feasibility to use for the synthesis of cellulose nitrates a unique nanoproduct, bacterial cellulose, whose molecular and polymer structure is alike cellulose isolated from vegetative parts but with that it is favorably distinguished by high chemical purity: no impurities of lignin, hemicelluloses and other non-cellulosic components.