Abstract: In many practical applications, it is necessary to create the cloud of fine particles which is quickly extending in the space. These are the tasks of disinfection, fire extinguishing, etc. Constantly there is a search of new methods of creation of such aerosols with the smallest expenses of energy and not demanding difficult devices. It is also important to know how quickly particles of an aerosol will extend on the space of the room and what concentration will be reached. In this work, the problem of atomization and distribution in space of fine aerosols by means of special designs of the sprays realizing the cavitation mode is considered. For these sprays, the cavitation role in receiving a liquid aerosol is shown. The mathematical model describing processes of the genesis of an aerosol cloud is proposed. Estimates of critical pressure for development of cavitation, the speed of the expiration, the resulting sizes of droplets, the coefficient of effective convective diffusion of particles are received. Pilot studies of atomization and concentration of aerosol particles were carried out by means of optical methods of measurements. Results of disperse parameters of an aerosol in the course of creation and distribution of a cloud of the aerosol formed at cavitational atomization of liquids are presented.