Abstract: For two-stroke petrol engines (DTBD) due to their compactness and high power there is a huge demand in various fields of human activity. A structural feature of DTBD is the absence of a lubrication system for engine parts. The benzo-oil mixture passes through the engine at high speed, which is why the oil should quickly lubricate the engine parts, creating an oil film on them. This feature determines the requirements for motor oils for DTBD. In modern engine oil, the proportion of base oils is more than 95%, the rest of the lubricating compositions are additives. Neutralization of higher isomeric carboxylic acids (C8-16) with lithium hydroxide, in boiling toluene, produced lithium salts. The article discusses the possibility of using as components lubricating compositions of lithium salts of higher isomeric carboxylic acids based on isoparaffinic and polyalphaolefinic oils. The physicochemical and tribological properties of the oils were determined. A comparative analysis of a number of properties of the oils themselves and oils with an additive has been carried out. It is shown that the introduction of lithium salts in the oil composition increases the kinematic viscosity and flash point in a closed crucible, improves low-temperature properties and washability in gasoline, reduces foaming. Lithium salts related to surface active substances, increase the adsorption of oil on the surface of engine parts. In the study of tribological properties found that the introduction of lithium salts does not improve the antiwear properties, however, increases the carrying capacity of oils. The use of lithium salts with anti-knock effect in the composition of the lubricating composition involves the introduction of anti-wear additives.At the same time, the number of components ensuring the aggregative stability of the polymerization mixture and the number of capacitive apparatuses (from 4 to 2) are reduced, for the preparation of aqueous solutions of sodium bicarbonate and methylpropylcellulose. Obtained PVC possesses increased thermal stability and a mass of plasticizer absorption. Optimization of the formulation of the polymerization process makes it possible to increase the yield of the polymer, by eliminating losses during the sieving operation.
Index terms: vinyl chloride, polymerization, suspension, polyvinyl chloride, optimization, formulation, calcium stearate.


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