AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF PHLOROGLUCINOL FROM 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE

I.A. Shchurova, N.A. Alekseyeva, S.V. Sysolyatin, V.V. Malykhin
DOI: 10.25699/SSSB.2021.40.6.009 Download PDF
Abstract: The study is concerned with a synthetic method for phloroglucinol that is of great concern as a scaffold for designing medicinal drugs, different-purpose polymers and the insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. The current and most ecobenign method for the synthesis of phloroglucinol is through catalytic hydrogenation of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene over the Pd catalyst to 1,3,5-triaminobenzene followed by its hydrolysis. The use of Pd catalysts allows the reduction under mild conditions, but their high cost necessitates the need to find ways how to spare the Pd usage and, consequently, the process cost. Here we demonstrated that the use of 1% Pd/Sibunite (50% to substrate weight) combined with a water-acetone solution as the medium in hydrogenation allows the catalyst to keep active longer. The optimum acetone-to-water ratio was found to be between 4:1 and 7:1. In this case, as many as 20 hydrogenation runs can be done without a fresh catalyst added whereby the Pd usage can be lowered threefold when compared to the other common methods in use. Besides, this approach allows the toxic solvent methanol to be expelled from the synthetic protocol. Triaminobenzene resulting from the hydrogenation without isolation undergoes hydrolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid to furnish phloroglucinol. The relationship between the phloroglucinol yield and the molar ratio of sulfuric acid and trinitrobenzene was also explored. The optimum sulfuric acid-to-trinitrobenzene ratio was found to be 2.0-2.4 mol/mol. The overall yield of phloroglucinol was 76% on a trinitrobenzene basis.
Index terms: phloroglucinol, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, catalytic hydrogenation, 1,3,5-triaminobenzene, hydrolisys.

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