Abstract: The share of catalytic processes in the petrochemical industry is growing every year. More than 70% of various chemical processes take place in the presence of catalysts; their share in world technology is about 90%. This is due to the expansion of the functionality of modern catalysts. Starting from increasing the efficiency and environmental friendliness of production, expanding the range of commercial products, obtaining products with desired properties, to simplifying technologies in some cases. In addition, the use of catalysts significantly determines the level of energy, capital and material costs, the novelty of technologies and their competitiveness. In this regard, the improvement of the industry of catalysts and technologies with their use are among the promising tasks of the development of chemical and petrochemical complexes of world industrial leaders. Nanocatalysis, catalysis in supercritical solvents, and ionic liquid catalysis are considered among the priority areas of catalysis. The main tools for improving catalysts are composition modification and structure design. This determines the renewal of the assortment and the growth of the catalyst market. Recent years have been distinguished by the intensity of scientific research in the development and study of catalysts for various processes. In order to generalize information on the development of catalytic systems for the main large-scale petrochemical processes, this review article has been prepared. The data of studies of the composition, structure, preparation methods, efficiency of new catalysts for the processes of hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, alkylation, oxidation and polymerization, which are widely used in the industry of organic and petrochemical synthesis, are systematized. For different processes, a comparison was made between new and used catalysts in terms of environmental friendliness, regenerability, as well as the yield and characteristics of target products.
Index terms: processes, catalyst, hydrocarbons, polymerization, rubber, petrochemistry.


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