REVERSE OSMOSIS TECHNOLOGIES FOR INDUTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: STATE OF THE PROBLEM AND CONTROL OF MEMBRANE FOULING

M.Q. Gubari, N.V. Alekseeva
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Abstract: Many industries produce large volumes of wastewater on a daily basis containing organic compounds, inorganic salts and suspended impurities. An integral part of modern industrial treatment facilities is a membrane cleaning system. The application area of membrane separation processes is limited by a number of requirements: the absence of suspended particles in the treated aqueous solutions, there are a number of limitations in the acidity and temperature of the separated solutions. One of the most important concerns in ensuring the cost-effectiveness of the entire processing process is the long membrane life, which can be achieved by preventing fouling of the membrane surface. The most common water treatment process is the reverse osmosis separation process. The paper considers the process of sedimentation on reverse osmosis membranes, with special attention paid to chemical cleaning. The analysis of works devoted to the issue of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes in various solutions is carried out. Various designs of membrane elements are considered, the mechanism of transfer through a reverse osmosis membrane is described, taking into account the phenomena of concentration polarization at the membrane surface. Various methods for controlling membrane fouling in industrial wastewater are described in detail: pretreatment, membrane cleaning and surface modification. The authors summarize that the composition of the initial solution is an important factor affecting the performance of a reverse osmosis system. In addition, the pretreatment of aqueous solutions before the reverse osmosis separation process leads to a decrease in fouling of the membrane surface and significantly increases the service life of the membrane element. It is effective to use an ultrafiltration separation process as a pretreatment process.
Index terms: membrane fouling, reverse osmosis, membrane transport, industrial wastewater.

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